AKC Registrable
AKC Registrable


The majestic Collie, thanks to a hundred years as a pop-culture star, is among the world’s most recognizable and beloved dog breeds. The full-coated “rough” Collie is the more familiar variety, but there is also a sleek “smooth” Collie.

  • Size
  • Grooming
  • Energy
  • Trainability
  • Disposition

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Breed Info




The origin of the Collie is unknown, but lived in Scotland for centuries working as herding and guard dogs for livestock. Today’s Collies use their skills to help us with search and rescue, assistance and guide dogs, herding, guard and watchdogs.


Large, up to 24-26” at the shoulders, weighing anywhere from 50-75 pounds. The Collie is a lean dog in a strong body with a double coat in colors of tri-color, blue merle, sable and white, white and tan. The weather-repellent outer coat is long, straight and rough; the under coat is soft and dense.

Health Awareness

The Collie has a long life expectancy of 14-16 years with the oldest recorded age of 29 years (not common)! This breed is prone to hip dysplasia, arthritis, eye disorders, epilepsy, and PRA.


The Collie is a friendly, sweet, playful and loyal companion to the family. They love to be with family so much that being without them, even while gone to work, can cause them to develop separation anxiety. This breed needs your attention and interaction. They are wary of strangers, although not aggressive toward them, however their fear can cause your Collie to become stressed. Socialize, socialize, socialize your Collie when a puppy to diminish his or her fears. Highly intelligent, your Collie will be eager to learn from you. You need to be a calm, knowledgeable, and humane owner giving consistent and committed leadership to your Collie using only motivational training methods.

Exercise/Energy Level

The Collie is a highly active breed, and requires a long brisk daily walk and plenty of off-leash play and running in a safe, fenced area. They also need mental stimulation to prevent boredom and destruction, so be sure to provide your Collie with plenty of interactive toys that challenge their problem-solving skills.

Breed Standard

General Appearance

The Collie is a lithe, strong, responsive, active dog, carrying no useless timber, standing naturally straight and firm. The deep, moderately wide chest shows strength, the sloping shoulders and well-bent hocks indicate speed and grace, and the face shows high intelligence. The Collie presents an impressive, proud picture of true balance, each part being in harmonious proportion to every other part and to the whole. Except for the technical description that is essential to this Standard and without which no Standard for the guidance of breeders and judges is adequate, it could be stated simply that no part of the Collie ever seems to be out of proportion to any other part. Timidity, frailness, sullenness, viciousness, lack of animation, cumbersome appearance and lack of over-all balance impair the general character.


The head properties are of great importance. When considered in proportion to the size of the dog the head is inclined to lightness and never appears massive. A heavy-headed dog lacks the necessary bright, alert, full-of-sense look that contributes so greatly to expression. Both in front and profile view the head bears a general resemblance to a well-blunted lean wedge, being smooth and clean in outline and nicely balanced in proportion. On the sides it tapers gradually and smoothly from the ears to the end of the black nose, without being flared out in backskull (cheeky) or pinched in muzzle (snipy). In profile view the top of the backskull and the top of the muzzle lie in two approximately parallel, straight planes of equal length, divided by a very slight but perceptible stop or break. A mid-point between the inside corners of the eyes (which is the center of a correctly placed stop) is the center of balance in length of head. The end of the smooth, well-rounded muzzle is blunt but not square. The underjaw is strong, clean-cut and the depth of skull from the brow to the under part of the jaw is not excessive. The teeth are of good size, meeting in a scissors bite. Overshot or undershot jaws are undesirable, the latter being more severely penalized. There is a very slight prominence of the eyebrows. The backskull is flat, without receding either laterally or backward and the occipital bone is not highly peaked. The proper width of backskull necessarily depends upon the combined length of skull and muzzle and the width of the backskull is less than its length. Thus the correct width varies with the individual and is dependent upon the extent to which it is supported by length of muzzle. Because of the importance of the head characteristics, prominent head faults are very severely penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body

Neck--The neck is firm, clean, muscular, sinewy and heavily frilled. It is fairly long, carried upright with a slight arch at the nape and imparts a proud, upstanding appearance showing off the frill. Body--The body is firm, hard and muscular, a trifle long in proportion to the height. The ribs are well-rounded behind the well-sloped shoulders and the chest is deep, extending to the elbows. The back is strong and level, supported by powerful hips and thighs and the croup is sloped to give a well-rounded finish. The loin is powerful and slightly arched. Noticeably fat dogs, or dogs in poor flesh, or with skin disease, or with no undercoat are out of condition and are moderately penalized accordingly.


The forelegs are straight and muscular, with a fair amount of bone considering the size of the dog. A cumbersome appearance is undesirable. Both narrow and wide placement are penalized. The forearm is moderately fleshy and the pasterns are flexible but without weakness.


The hind legs are less fleshy, muscular at the thighs, very sinewy and the hocks and stifles are well bent. A cowhocked dog or a dog with straight stifles is penalized. The comparatively small feet are approximately oval in shape. The soles are well padded and tough, and the toes are well arched and close together. When the Collie is not in motion the legs and feet are judged by allowing the dog to come to a natural stop in a standing position so that both the forelegs and the hind legs are placed well apart, with the feet extending straight forward. Excessive "posing"is undesirable.


The four recognized colors are "Sable and White," "Tri-color," "Blue Merle" and "White." There is no preference among them. The "Sable and White" is predominantly sable (a fawn sable color of varying shades from light gold to dark mahogany) with white markings usually on the chest, neck, legs, feet and the tip of the tail. A blaze may appear on the foreface or backskull or both. The "Tri-color" is predominantly black, carrying white markings as in a "Sable and White" and has tan shadings on and about the head and legs. The "Blue Merle" is a mottled or "marbled" color predominantly blue-grey and black with white markings as in the "Sable and White" and usually has tan shadings as in the "Tri-color." The "White" is predominantly white, preferably with sable, tri-color or blue merle markings.


Because of the combination of the flat skull, the arched eyebrows, the slight stop and the rounded muzzle, the foreface must be chiseled to form a receptacle for the eyes and they are necessarily placed obliquely to give them the required forward outlook. Except for the blue merles, they are required to be matched in color. They are almond-shaped, of medium size and never properly appear to be large or prominent. The color is dark and the eye does not show a yellow ring or a sufficiently prominent haw to affect the dog's expression. The eyes have a clear, bright appearance, expressing intelligent inquisitiveness, particularly when the ears are drawn up and the dog is on the alert. In blue merles, dark brown eyes are preferable, but either or both eyes may be merle or china in color without specific penalty. A large, round, full eye seriously detracts from the desired sweet expression. Eye faults are heavily penalized.


The ears are in proportion to the size of the head and, if they are carried properly and unquestionably break naturally, are seldom too small. Large ears usually cannot be lifted correctly off the head, and even if lifted, they will be out of proportion to the size of the head. When in repose the ears are folded lengthwise and thrown back into the frill. On the alert they are drawn well up on the backskull and are carried about three-quarters erect, with about onefourth of the ear tipping or breaking forward. A dog with prick ears or low ears cannot show true expression and is penalized accordingly.


The tail is moderately long, the bone reaching to the hock joint or below. It is carried low when the dog is quiet, the end having an upward twist or swirl. When gaited or when the dog is excited it is carried gaily but not over the back.


Gait is sound. When the dog is moved at a slow trot toward an observer its straight front legs track comparatively close together at the ground. The front legs are not out at the elbows, do not "crossover," nor does the dog move with a choppy, pacing or rolling gait. When viewed from the rear the hind legs are straight, tracking comparatively close together at the ground. At a moderate trot the hind legs are powerful and propelling. Viewed from the side the reasonably long, "reaching" stride is smooth and even, keeping the back line firm and level. As the speed of the gait is increased the Collie single tracks, bringing the front legs inward in a straight line from the shoulder toward the center line of the body and the hind legs inward in a straight line from the hip toward the center line of the body. The gait suggests effortless speed combined with the dog's herding heritage, requiring it to be capable of changing its direction of travel almost instantaneously.

Additional Information

The Smooth Variety of Collie is judged by the same Standard as the Rough Variety, except that the references to the quantity and distribution of the coat are not applicable to the Smooth Variety, which has a short, hard, dense, flat coat of good texture, with an abundance of undercoat.


Expression is one of the most important points in considering the relative value of Collies. Expression, like the term character, is difficult to define in words. It is not a fixed point as in color, weight or height and it is something the uninitiated can properly understand only by optical illustration. In general, however, it may be said to be the combined product of the shape and balance of the skull and muzzle, the placement, size, shape and color of the eye and the position, size and carriage of the ears. An expression that shows sullenness or which issuggestive of any other breed is entirely foreign. The Collie cannot be judged properly until its expression has been carefully evaluated.



Devoted, Graceful, Proud


The Collie is a large but lithe herder standing anywhere from 22 to 26 inches tall. The rough variety boasts one of the canine kingdom’s most impressively showy coats; the smooth coat’s charms are subtler but no less satisfying. Coat colors in both varieties are sable and white, tricolor, blue merle, or white. Collie fanciers take pride in their breed’s elegant wedge-shaped head, whose mobile ears and almond eyes convey a wide variety of expressions. Collies are famously fond of children and make wonderful family pets. These swift, athletic dogs thrive on companionship and regular exercise. With gentle training, they learn happily and rapidly. The Collie’s loyalty, intelligence, and sterling character are the stuff of legend.


Queen Victoria’s deep and abiding love for the Scotland made a lasting impact on the Collie’s history. It was the dog-loving Victoria, during her many extended stays at Balmoral Castle on the Scottish Highlands, who popularized the local herding breed among her courtiers and subjects during the second half of the 19th century. Her enthusiasm for Collies began the breed’s ascent from humble shepherd dog to worldwide canine superstar. It is supposed that the Collie’s ancestors reached Scotland nearly 2,000 years before Victoria did, brought by the Romans during their conquest of Britain in the first century of the Common Era. Over several centuries, the Roman herding stock was interbred with local dogs. Sometime during this long unwritten history, we can surmise that a stouthearted sheepherding dog recognizable as the Collie came into focus. (A prevalent theory holds that the name Collie derives from the name of a particular strain of black-faced sheep called colleys.) The Collie enters the written record around 1800, and by the time Victoria “discovered” the Collie later in the century, the breed’s now familiar characteristics were set. In 20th-century America, author and dog breeder Albert Payson Terhune popularized the breed for generations of eager young readers, who thrilled at adventures of the Sunnybank Collies. In 1940, British author Eric Knight launched one of the great pop-culture franchises of all time with his novel Lassie Come-Home. Thanks to Knight’s books, spin-off movies, and a long-running TV show, Lassie made Collies the ideal canine companion of every child’s fantasy.


The Collie is a lithe, strong, responsive, active dog, carrying no useless timber, standing naturally straight and firm. The deep, moderately wide chest shows strength, the sloping shoulders and well-bent hocks indicate speed and grace, and the face shows high intelligence. The Collie presents an impressive, proud picture of true balance, each part being in harmonious proportion to every other part and to the whole. Except for the technical description that is essential to this Standard and without which no Standard for the guidance of breeders and judges is adequate, it could be stated simply that no part of the Collie ever seems to be out of proportion to any other part. Timidity, frailness, sullenness, viciousness, lack of animation, cumbersome appearance and lack of over-all balance impair the general character.


Good nutrition is the very first thing the owner can do for their Collie to ensure healthy skin and coat and general well being. Collies do well on a good-quality dog food that is primarily meat-based, with fewer grains as ingredients. Many breed experts feel that Collies should not be fed foods with corn or soy in the ingredients. Collies have a risk of bloat, so two feedings/multiple feedings per day as opposed to once a day is recommended, and some meat added to the food has been shown to reduce risk.


Smooth Collies, while they won’t mat, require regular grooming, as they have a double coat, and the undercoat needs brushing out during shedding periods. Rough Collies need attention to avoid matting, especially in certain areas such as behind the ears and elbows, and to remove loose undercoat. A weekly brushing down to the skin eliminates that problem and keeps the coat and skin healthy. If females are spayed, they do a big shed once a year; if intact, females shed about three months after their heat cycle, and males around their birthday, so those times require a little extra grooming.


While there are variations among individuals and families, Collies generally are quite active and require regular exercise. They need aerobic exercise and the chance to be able to run and play. Teaching them to fetch can provide good exercise, and having a fenced yard where they can run and going on daily walks help too. They should not be relegated to the backyard for long periods of time, as with boredom comes barking. Collies are people dogs and want to be with their owners first and foremost. Ideally a Collie will be ready to go when it’s time to go, and able to chill when it’s time to chill.


While Collies are very smart and easy to train, puppy classes are recommended for general socialization and training. But it shouldn’t end there. Collies love training and learning, and both make for a better companion and build a good relationship with the owner and family. Collies thrive on positive teaching methods. They excel in obedience, agility, and herding, and even barn hunt and lure coursing, and owners will discover something fun to do with their dog!


The Collie Health Foundation has invested lots of research dollars to identify and solve health issues, and their website offers great information on health issues in the breed. The minimum requirement is for puppies between 6-8 weeks old to have an eye check by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist for Collie eye anomaly, an inherited eye disease. Some Collies may also have a sensitivity to certain drugs, known as the MDR1 mutation. More information can be found on this at http://vcpl.vetmed.wsu.edu. Collies typically live from 12 to 14 years and are as a rule healthy, but after doing their research prospective buyers should ask questions of breeders and have an understanding of what health guarantees can be provided.


Did you know?

The Collie is well known for the role of Lassie The blue merle color of Collies was originally called "tortoise shell" There are two varieties of Collie: rough and smooth